Trump Admininstration’s New DHS Immigration Enforcement Criteria And The Future of Travel/Visa Ban

After a short lull in immigration policy action, things are changing again. Last week the Trump Administration informed the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals that it would issue a new Executive Order (EO) on the travel/visa ban this week which will replace the initial EO and moot the 9th Circuit’s national temporary restraining order. The new EO is expected late this week and has not been released in draft form. The Trump Administration has offered some information about the new EO as follows: it will not take effect immediately upon issuance, to allow for preparations and avoid the chaos that ensued when the initial EO took effect immediately; it will apply to the same seven countries (Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Yemen); it will clarify how it applies to dual citizens of a listed country and another country that isn’t on the list; it will be clear that lawful permanent residents of the US are not affected by the EO; it may allow some refugees from Syria. These points address the most obvious legal and operational deficiencies of the initial EO. Continue reading

Physician Heal Thyself: California Sets Nation’s Highest Standard For Health Care Workplace Violence Prevention

The facts are distressing: according to federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration statistics, over half of all reported workplace violence incidents occurred against workers in healthcare and social assistance. Nurses are attacked at more than 3 ½ times the average national rate of occupational violence. Continue reading

Looking Ahead: Immigration & International Programs Under the Trump Administration

President Trump’s recent Executive Order 13769 (EO) on immigration caused tumult for many colleges and universities when it was implemented. With more than 20 lawsuits challenging the EO, on Feb. 9 the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a national temporary restraining order (TRO) granted by U.S. District Court in Washington state. While this is a major victory for the rule of law and constitutional separation of powers, it’s only temporary. Additional court rulings and executive orders on immigration are expected, and the approach is difficult to predict.

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-Leigh Cole

 

Trump Labor Nominee, Andrew Puzder, Withdraws

Andrew Puzder, the fast food CEO that Donald J. Trump nominated to be Labor Secretary, abruptly withdrew his name from consideration today following revelations that he was physically abusive to his wife and that he employed an undocumented worker at his home.  Puzder had reportedly lost the support of several Republican senators, guaranteeing that his nomination would fail.   Continue reading

Take a Seat: Takeaways from Bank of America’s $15 Million Suitable Seating Settlement

As we previously blogged here, in April 2016, in Kilby v. CVS Pharmacy, Inc., the California Supreme Court ruled, without providing much guidance, that suitable seating is required “when the nature of the work reasonable permits the use of seats.” Last fall, Bank of America (BofA), in a similar representative action, agreed to settle a suitable seating lawsuit for $15 million, filed on behalf of all of its California non-exempt tellers.  The settlement provides some interesting insights about settlements of class and representative actions, and provides some guidance on the suitable seating requirement under California law.

The Players: The settlement involved two cases that were filed between 2011 and 2013.  In April 2011, two plaintiffs, Rhonique Green and Olivia Giddings, filed a putative class action complaint in Los Angeles County Superior Court (the Green action), seeking damages and civil penalties under the California Private Attorneys’ General Act (“PAGA”) on behalf of themselves and all current and former BofA California tellers.  The plaintiffs alleged BofA required them to stand while working, in violation of California’s Wage Order, even though there was “ample space behind each counter to allow for the use of a stool or seat by Bank of America’s tellers during the performance of their work duties.”  BofA removed the Green case to federal court.  In October 2013, Nicole Garrett filed another complaint (the Garrett action) against BofA in Alameda County Superior Court, seeking civil penalties through a PAGA “representative action.”  The Green action was stayed pending resolution of the Garrett action.

Who Got Paid: Upon settlement of the Garrett Action, after $5 million (1/3 of the settlement) plus litigation costs went to plaintiffs’ counsel, 75% of the settlement was distributed to the State of California (the Labor Workforce Development Agency, or “LWDA”), leaving 25% to the allegedly aggrieved employees.  The three named plaintiffs each received a $25,000 enhancement before the remaining 25% was divided among the representative group of employees.

Interesting Features of the Settlement: In addition to the $15 million settlement, BofA agreed to non-monetary terms that should help prevent future suitable seating litigation against it.  Specifically, BofA agreed to provide suitable seating for its tellers at all California BofA branches.  BofA agreed to inform tellers (via managers and meetings with tellers) that they have the right to use seats while working when the nature of their work reasonably permits sitting.  Under the settlement agreement, the term “reasonably permits sitting” requires BofA to provide seats to tellers when they are working on the teller line and/or at a teller window, including when they are assisting customers. However, the “suitable seating” provision does not apply when it is not possible for the teller to remain seated while performing his or her job, such as when the teller is printing.  Also under the agreement, BofA now instructs tellers to advise management if a seat is not available so management can promptly provide a suitable seat.  Last, BofA agreed to post documentation regarding its suitable seating policy for employees to access along with other policies and procedures.

The Bottom Line: The terms of this settlement don’t necessarily have a ripple effect beyond BofA and the putative class, and the agreement does not do much to illuminate the “suitable seating” requirement.   The law is still fairly undefined as to when the workplace “reasonably permits the use of seats.”  Because of that uncertainty, and the substantial potential damages and penalties that may be sought in a PAGA or class-wide suitable seating action, employers should evaluate whether their workplace reasonably permits the use of seats, using the Court’s reasoning in Kilby v. CVS Pharmacy, Inc. as a guide. If such provision of seating is warranted, then the next step is to prepare a written suitable seating policy; to disseminate and inform employees of this policy and the availability of suitable seating, and to provide suitable seating pursuant to that policy. Further, because the law is murky as to when work “reasonably permits” seating, employers should conduct such an analysis with the aid of counsel.

-Alison Hamer